Showing posts with label malaria. Show all posts
Showing posts with label malaria. Show all posts

Thursday, June 9, 2011

Letter of the Day: June 9

Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 06759

Surgeon General's Office
U.S. Army Medical Museum and Library
Corner of 7th and B Streets
Washington, June 9, 1903.

To the Surgeon General,
U.S. Army.

(Through the President of the Faculty, Army Medical School).


In order to obtain the necessary material for class purposes at the Army Medical School I have the honor to ask the the Surgeons at Fort Myer, Va., Washington Barracks, D.C., and the U.S. Soldiers' Home, Washington, D.C., be requested to notify me by telephone whenever a case of malaria presents in which the parasites are found in teh blood. Upon receipt of such notification a man will be sent at once to prepare cover-glass smears for preparation.

Very respectfully,
James Carroll
1st Lieut. Asst. Surgeon, U.S.A.
Asst. Curator.

Saturday, May 28, 2011

Letter of the Day: May 28

Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 00691

May 28, 1895

Major C.E. Munn,
Surgeon, U. S. Army,
Post Surgeon, Benicia Barracks,

Dear Doctor:

I have sent you a second set of cultures of pathogenic organisms. I am sorry that you have had so much trouble in obtaining them, which was, as you well know, the fault of no one here.

Owing to the continual demand which has been made upon the Museum for slides of malarial parasite, I am unable at present to send you a slide; but I have placed your name first on the list, and just as soon as the fever begins at Washington Barracks, will send you a carefully stained slide.

Very truly yours,
Walter Reed
Surgeon, U.S. Army,

Friday, May 27, 2011

Letter of the Day: May 27

Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 06723

Surgeon General's Office,
U.S. Army Medical Museum and Library,
Corner of 7th and B Streets, NW
Washington, May 27, 1903.

1st Lieut. E.L. Ruffner
Asst. Surgeon, U.S.A.
Base Hospital, Iloilo,
Panay, P.I.

(Through the Surgeon General, U.S. Army)

I have the honor to acknowledge with thanks the receipt of thirty (30) dried cover-slip films of Aestivo-autumnal malarial blood for the use of the Army Medical School.

I would be very glad to have more of such specimens as about 50 will probably be needed to go around the class.

Very respectfully,
James Carroll
1st Lieut. Asst. Surgeon, U.S.A.
Asst. Curator.

Friday, December 3, 2010

Letter of the Day: December 3

Fort Logan, Col.
Dec. 3rd 1896

My dear Doctor

I have recently made a number of examinations of the blood of a patient who has a peculiar form of fever, and think I have discovered the Plasmodium in every instance.

I send you by to-days mail, two slides satined Chinzinsky's method, which I wish you would kindly take a look at when you have the time, and let me know whether or not there are any Plasmodia to be sure.

Very sincerely yours,
R. W. Johnson

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Letter of the Day: November 16

Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 1801


November 16, 1890


Major A.A. DeLoffre,

Surgeon, U.S. Army,

Fort Logan, Colorado.


Dear Doctor:


In reply to your favor of November 12th, I send by today’s mail a slide of the malarial parasite, tertian variety. I am afraid that this will not assist Dr. Johnson in diagnosing your cases of fever. It so happens that we have not at present any slides of the aestivo-autumnal organism, as I have been unable to procure any material of this kind during the present fall.


Regretting that I cannot send you slides of all the varieties of parasites, I am,


Very truly yours,


Walter Reed

Surgeon, U.S. Army,


Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Letter of the Day: September 1

Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 1627


Fort Reno, Okla. Ter.

Sept. 1, 1896.


Dear Doctor:-


The photographs of the malarial parasite were duly received. If I do not hear from you to the contrary, I shall consider that you meant to have me keep them.


There were no cases of malarial fever during August at this post. But if I am again unable to find the parasite in a case which I feel certain from other evidence is malarial, I shall certainly take advantage of your very kind offer and send on some dried specimens.


With many thanks, I am,


Very truly yours,


Sam Q Robinson


Major Walter Reed,

Surgeon, U.S.A.

Army Med. Museum.


Thursday, August 5, 2010

Letter of the Day: August 5 (2 of 2) - malaria?

Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 1642


Office of R.H. Cooper,

City Clerk.


Palatka, Florida, Aug 5, 1896


The Curator Army Medical Museum

Washington DC


Dear Sir


The City Council of the City of Palatka desires to as-certain whether you subject a sample of water to an analytical or microscopic examination which will determine whether the water is the cause of a considerable amount of malarial sickness which is prevailing in our City at the present time.


If this can be done please inform me of the cost and the amount of water it will be necessary to transmit. The water in question is that which is used for drinking and general purposes throughout the City.


Yours respectfully

RH Cooper

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Letter of the Day: July 22


Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 1604


July 22, 1896


Sister Beatrice,


Providence Hospital,

Washington, D.C.


Sister Beatrice:


I return herewith four of the registers showing admissions etc., to Providence Hospital under your charge. The other two, being those at present in use at the Hospital, I returned yesterday by messenger, as I feared their retention by me might inconvenience you. I hope they reached you safely.


Please accept my sincere thanks for your kindness in permitting me the use of these records, which will, I hope, be of some service to me in an investigation regarding malarial fever at Fort Myer, Va., and Washington Barracks, D.C., which the Surgeon General has directed me to make.


Very respectfully,

Walter Reed

Surgeon, U.S. Army,


Saturday, July 17, 2010

Letter of the Day: July 17 (2 of 2)

Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 1601

W.W. Godding, M.D.,

Government Hospital for the Insane.
Washington, D.C., July 17, 1896

Dr. Walter Reed.
Curator, U.S. Army,
Medical Museum,
Washington, D.C.

Dear Doctor:

In reply to your communication of recent date referring to your investigation of the etiology of malarial diseases etc; I have to inform you that we record the mental rather than the physical condition of our patients, and in this respect our statistics differ from those of a general hospital.

Many of the insane treated here suffer from malaria, but up to this time it has only been treated as a complication and not as a distinct disease, hence it would be impossible to give you definite information in the direction you request.

Regretting my inability to aid you in your interesting and valuable investigations, I remain,
Very respectfully,

W.W. Godding,

Wednesday, July 7, 2010

Letter of the Day: July 7 (1 of 2) - Dredging the Potomac

Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 1589


July 7, 1896



Major Charles J. Allen,

Engineer Corps, U.S. Army,

In charge of Improvement of Potomac river, etc.,

Washington, D.C.


Dear Sir:


In connection with an investigation which I am now making by direction of the Surgeon General, concerning the prevalence of malarial diseases at Washington Barracks, and at Fort Myer, Va, I have the honor to request that I may be informed as to the date when the work of dredging the Potomac River and filling in the flats was begun, and, if possible, the amount of work accomplished each year., vis.: the number of cubic yards raised and deposited monthly, etc.


It is believe that information upon these points may throw considerable light on the investigation in which I am an engaged.


Very respectfully,

Walter Reed

Surgeon, U.S. Army,



Letter of the Day: July 7 (2 of 2)

Curatorial Records: Numbered Correspondence 1590

July 7, 1896

Colonel F.C. Ainsworth,
Chief Record and Pension Office,
War Department,
Washington, D.C.

Dear Sir:

In connection with an investigation which I am now making by direction of the Surgeon General concerning the prevalence of malarial diseases at Washington Barracks and at Fort Meyer, Va., I have the honor to request that I may be given access to the medical records of these posts for the period including the years 1870 to 1895.

Very respectfully,
Walter Reed
Surgeon, U.S. Army,

July 8, 1896, permission granted by telephone message

Saturday, April 10, 2010

Letter of the Day: April 10 (2 of 2)

Military Hospital
Malahi Island, Laguna, P.I.
April, 10th, 1905.

Miss C.S. Ludlow,
S.G.O., Washington, D.C.


I have the honor to forward this date under separate cover 54 mosquitoes, collected at this station. Place:- Stockade, this post. Date:-April 9th, 1905, about 7 A.M. Collector:- Capt. C.E.B. Flagg, Asst. Surgeon, U.S.A. No prevailing diseases.

We have pill boxes on hand and will continue to use them for shipping boxes if they are satisfactory for the purpose. A cyanide bottle is needed as there is none available here. Chloroform is now used for this purpose.

A printed unsigned circular relative to collection etc., of mosquitoes, and a shipping box enclosing 3 pill boxes and purporting to contain a cyanide bottle was received from the S.G.O. March 26th, 1905.

No case of malarial fever has been known to have originated here. We make blood examinations in all fever cases and have occasionally one of malaria contracted elsewhere. We have not been able to secure any anopheles as yet, and I have not seen one since by arrival here last September. Lieut. Duncan, Med. Department, who was here last September, told me he found some anopheles in rear of his quarters.

These mosquitoes undoubtedly form a small per cent of the few on the island, but failure to catch any of them is probably due to inexperience of the collectors.

A statement as to whether you have ever received a malaria bearing mosquito from this station would be of interest for record in the medical history of the post.

Very respectfully,

Chas. E.B. Flagg,
Capt., Asst. Surgeon, U.S. Army,

Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Letter of the day, March 31

Knowing the cause and controlling it were still two different things.

Office of the Surgeon,
Camp Stotsenburg, P.I., Mch 31, 1917.

From: The Surgeon.
To. The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.
(Thru Department Surgeon.)
Subject: Mosquitoes.

1. Collection of mosquitoes mailed, this date, to the Curator, Army Medical Museum, Washington, D.C.

2. 55 cases of malaria during the month, as follows:
Aestivo-autumnal, 8
Tertian, 47

3. Average strength of command: 2102.63

4. 2 cases of malaria, members of 15th Cav., casually at post, and 16 cases of civilians in addition to the above, during the month.

[signed, illegible]
Major, Medical Corps.


Tuesday, February 16, 2010

Letter of the Day: February 16 1 of 2

Note the continuing confusion of types of fevers. Dale Smith's written an excellent paper on this. Carroll had made his reputation working with Walter Reed on yellow fever a few years earlier. The cause of the anemia he refers to would eventually be defined by US Army doctor Bailey Ashford.

War Department,
Office of the Surgeon General,
Army Medical Museum and Library,

February 16, 1904

Private Julian W. Moody,
Hospital Corps, U.S.A.
(Through the Surgeon, Fort Monroe, Va.).


I have to acknowledge the receipt of a bottle of sputum containing tubercle bacilli, and thank you for sending it. This is material we can usually obtain in abundance. If you could send me, however, at any time specimens of blood showing quartan or aestivo-autumnal malarial parasites, pernicious or secondary anemia, eosinophilia or any marked pathological condition of the blood, I shall be very glad to have them.


James Carroll

1st Lieut. Asst. Surgeon, U.S.A.
Curator, Army Medical Museum

Wednesday, October 7, 2009

More good stuff from the Registry

I finally got back to work on the Registry of Noteworthy Research in Pathology and today found some letters.

James Carroll was a Major in the Army who worked with Walter Reed on his yellow fever research. He volunteered to be bitten by a mosquito that had previously bitten three others who had yellow fever. He contracted the disease and several years later died of cardiac disease that was attributed to his bout of yellow fever.

Here's a letter from the President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, petitioning a Congressman to grant a special pension to Carroll's widow.

Page 1

Page 2

And here is the Congressman's reply.

Maybe I'm missing something, but I thought being a Major in the Army meant you were in military service to your country.

Tuesday, May 26, 2009

Malaria Moe

Warren Bernard gave us a nice donation last week of some WW2 malaria education cartoons done by Frank Mack, and a further "donation" of more of the same that we can scan for our collection. We had some of the "Malaria Moe" cartoons and some of these calendar pages, but ours were from microfilm and are black and white. Warren gave us the color versions and even 65 years on, they're fabulous.

Monday, March 30, 2009

Malaria Moe cartoons on Flickr

Kathleen put up a bunch of scans of World War 2 Malaria Moe propaganda cartoons on Flickr today. The artist, Frank Mack, later went on to work for Ripley's Believe It Or Not.

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Leo Slater lecture on malaria at UMD

The cover of his new book is a photograph from us -

The Maryland Colloquium on the History of Technology, Science, and Environment (MCHOTSE) is pleased to announce its session for March 5, 2009.

Leo B. Slater, author of "War and Disease: Biomedical Research on Malaria in the Twentieth Century" (Rutgers University Press, 2009).

The Colloquium meets in room TLF (Taliaferro Hall) 2110 at the University of Maryland, College Park. Social 'hour' with refreshments, 4:00-4:30 pm; presentation and discussion, 4:30-6:00 pm.

[no precirculated paper available for this talk]

Malaria-a major cause of mortality and morbidity during the twentieth century-remains one of the leading killers in the world today. Malaria's enormous impact on human populations throughout the modern era has often put this disease at the center of colonial expansion, warfare, economic transformation, and North/South global tensions. In the late 1930s, the growing global conflict brought new attention to malaria.

The US antimalarial program during World War II was a Manhattan Project for biomedicine. From 1939 to 1946, it screened some 14,000 compounds for antimalarial activity, clinically ratified atabrine as the drug of choice in 1943, and, by war's end, identified chloroquine as a superior compound. Initiated by the National Research Council, the program drew on a set of intellectual and organizational resources and models extending back to the German pharmaceutical and dye industries and to such domestic institutions as the Rockefeller Institutes and Foundation. Prospectively, the wartimeantimalarial program deserves historical attention as both an undertaking in its own right-one that helped to safeguard millions of GIs-and as a model for future large-scale biomedical research projects. Its later use as a model was perhaps most clearly seen at the National Institutes of Health.

The innovations of the US wartime antimalarial program chiefly lay in three areas: administration, scale, and communication. The program produced not just research findings, novel compounds, and clinical protocols, it also developed new organizational structures for scientific cooperation and distributed research networks. I argue that wartime work was essential to the development of NIH, if only because the confused and faltering structures of the early war years, 1939-1943, suggest that an organizational infrastructure for large scale, multi-center cooperative research did not exist prior to World War II.


Taliaferro Hall is up the hill past the Memorial Chapel, off of U.S. Rte. 1 (Baltimore Ave.) in College Park. The University's web site will provide a map as well as advice on parking [see:; look for building 043]. Many restricted lots at the university are available to the public after 4:00 pm, but attendees are advised to read all parking lot signs carefully. Lots C and L are the closest unrestricted lots (after 4 pm) to Taliaferro Hall.

Friday, January 23, 2009

New malaria book by one of our researchers

One of our researchers, Leo B. Slater, just let us know that his book has been published. That's our photo on the cover, which has been cropped a bit and edited a bit more, and here it is, full size, from one of our Flickr accounts.